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ATARI 8 bit Serial Input/Output (SIO)

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 From: aa853_at_cleveland.Freenet.Edu (Craig Lisowski)                                     CHAPTER 13                                 THE SERIAL INPUT/OUTPUT INTERFACE (SIO)                  Most input and output with the Atari computer passes through the      serial I/O bus.  The SIO interface is rather complicated but you are      unlikely to need to use it directly.  CIO usually handles SIO for you.      However, if you want to design your own I/O device and it's associated      handler, you need to know how to use the SIO.            SIO transfers data at a rate of 19,200 baud on separate input and      output lines.  The data is sent one byte at a time, LSB first, in an      asynchronous format.  There are also clock-in and clock-out lines.       There is a signal on the clock-out line but it is not used by any      present devices.  The clock-in line is available for synchronous      transfer but is not used by the OS.  The signal on the clock-out line      goes high at the leading edge of each bit and goes low in the middle      of each bit.                                          One byte of SIO data                                 +-+ +-+ +-+ +-+ +-+ +-+ +-+ +-+                     | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |        clock        -------------+ +-+ +-+ +-+ +-+ +-+ +-+ +-+ +------                    ---------+       +---+   +-------+       +--------                 |     0 | 1 | 0 | 1   1 | 0   0 | 1        data                 +-------+   +---+       +-------+                         |                                    |                     start bit                            stop bit                  The SIO interface is used much like the resident disk handler.  In      fact, it uses the same device control block as the resident disk      handler.  After the control block parameters are set, a JSR is made to      the SIO entry vector, SIOV, at $E459 (58457).                                     Device control block (for SIO)                  DDEVIC [$0300 (768)]                 Serial bus I.D.  Set by handler or program.            DUNIT  [$0301 (769)]                 Device number if more than one.            DCOMND [$0302 (770)]                 Device command byte.            DSTATS [$0303 (771)]            Before the SIO call, this byte tells whether the operation is read,      write or that there is no data transfer associated with the command.       After the call this byte will hold the status (error/no error code) of      the operation.                                      DSTATS format before command                      7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0               -----------------               |W|R| not used  |               -----------------            If both W and R are 0, there is no data transfer.            DBUFLO [$0304 (772)]      DBUFHI [$0305 (773)]            Points to the data buffer for either input or output.            DTIMLO [$0306 (774)]            Timeout value (response time limit) in 64/60ths of a second to be set      by handler or program.            DBYTLO [$0308 (776)]      DBYTHI [$0309 (777)]            Number of bytes to be transferred, set by handler or program.  This      parameter is not required if the DSTATS specifies no data transfer.            DAUX1  [$030A (778)]      DAUX2  [$030B (779)]            These parameters are sent to the device as part of the command frame.                  USING THE SIO INTERFACE            All commands on the serial bus must originate from the computer.  The      peripherals will present data on the bus only when commanded to do      so.            Any operation on the serial bus begins with a five byte command frame.       While the command frame is being sent, the command line of the serial      connector is 0.                                    Command frame format                      $xx  DDEVIC                $xx  DCOMND                $xx  DAUX1                $xx  DAUX2                $xx  checksum            The first four bytes of the command frame come from the device control      block.  the checksum is the sum of the other four bytes with the carry      added back after each addition.            If both R and W of the DSTATS are 0, no data is sent to, or expected      from the peripheral, after a command frame is sent.  However, the      device is usually expected to send an ACK byte ($41) after the command      frame is sent.  If the command frame is invalid, an NAK byte ($4E)      should be sent.            If the operation is output (W = 1) the computer will send a data frame      after it receives the ACK of the command frame.  It then expects an      ACK after the data frame is sent.            If the operation is an input (R = 1) the computer expects a data frame      from the peripheral after the ACK.  With either input or output, a      "complete" code ($43) should be sent to the computer when the      operation is finished.  The "complete" code would follow the ACK of      the data frame with an output operation.            If the operation is not completed for some reason, the peripheral      should send an error code ($45) instead of "complete".                                       SIO data frame                      byte 1     $xx                        > data bytes          byte n     $xx/          byte n+1   $xx   checksum                                        SIO commands                  READ      $52      WRITE     $57      STATUS    $53      PUT       $50      FORMAT    $21      DOWNLOAD  $20      READADDR  $54      READ SPIN $51      MOTOR ON  $55      VERIFY       SECTOR   $56                                        Present SIO device I.D.s                  DISK      $31 - $34  (D1 - D4)      PRINTER   $40      RS-232-C  $50 - $53  (R1 - R4)            THE SERIAL CONNECTOR            The serial connectors on the computer and all peripherials are      identical.  Nearly all peripherials have two serial connectors.       Either connector may be used for any connection.  The serial bus is      designed so that peripherials can be daisy-chained together.  The      following is a diagram of the serial connector.                                      The serial connector pin-out                                         1 1                     2 4 6 8 0 2                     -----------                    /o o o o o o                  /o o o o o o o                 -----------------                    1 3 5 7 9 1 1                              1 3                   1  clock in (to computer)       2  clock out       3  data in       4  GND       5  data out       6  GND       7  command (active low)       8  cassette motor control       9  proceed (active low)      10  +5V/ready      11  audio in      12  +12V (400/800)      13  interrupt (active low)            Proceed goes to pin 40 (CA1) of the PIA.  It is not used by present      peripherials.            Interrupt goes to pin 18 (CB1) of the PIA.  It is not used by present      peripherials.            Pin 10 doubles as a 50mA +5V peripharal power supply and a computer      ready signal.                                      Useful database variables and OS equates                  SIOV   $E459      (58457): serial port handler entry      DDEVIC $0300        (768): device ID      DUNIT  $0301        (769): device number      DCOMND $0302        (770): command byte      DSTATS $0303        (771): status byte      DBUFLO $0304        (772): data buffer pointer      DBUFHI $0305        (773):      DTIMLO $0306        (774): timout value      DBYTLO $0308        (776): number of bytes to transfer      DBYTHI $0309        (777):      DAUX1  $030A        (778): sent to device      DAUX2  $030B        (779): sent to device                                                                             



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